The abdominal aorta is the largest artery of a human body, that begins from descending thoracic aorta and ends to the pelvis and lower limb. However, it includes as a part of the abdominal cavity and carries oxygenated bloodstream via the whole abdominal organs that are why regarded it as the largest artery of the body.
The abdominal aorta, in the beginning, enters into the diaphragm at the vertebral level of T12 the further mutually goes to L4. Then it starts splitting because to become the paired iliac arteries (Para visceral and Infrarenal segment) that exhibit in the lower of the abdomen. Later, it approaches to lower parts of the body (lower limb and pelvis).
Learn about all the branches of aorta.
Branches of abdominal aorta
Here we will figure out the different branches of the abdominal aorta:
Inferior phrenic artery:
The inferior phrenic is basically a two small vessels, present just above the coeliac trunk and below the diaphragm. Afterward, it goes in the upward direction where it joins to the suprarenal gland or adrenal gland, after which finally passes the crus of the diaphragm of the corresponding side.
The visceral celiac artery also referred by a couple of doctors as the celiac trunk or truncus coeliacs. Its total length is 1.25 cm having three anterior branches (left gastric artery, common hepatic artery, and splenic artery) it is the largest anterior branch. Its main function is to supply oxygenated blood to the liver, stomach, abdominal esophagus, spleen and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas.
Superior mesenteric artery:
The visceral superior mesenteric artery begins just below the truncus coeliacs. It carries oxygenated blood to the small intestine via the 2/3 part of the transverse colon and finally ends up in the pancreas.
Middle suprarenal artery:
The posterior middle suprarenal artery that actually have two small segments (middle capsular arteries and suprarenal arteries). It further pumps the blood stream through the suprarenal glands.
The renal artery is basically one of these two vessels that are coming from the off-side of the abdominal aorta. However, after that renal artery enters into the hilum, where it splits into two further branches and finally subdivided into the small segments called nephrons, which deliver blood to each minor part of the kidneys.
The gonadal artery having sub vessels (testicular artery in a male and ovarian artery in females), its main function to delivers blood to the gonad.
The lumbar artery is the mutual bind off four pairs of arteries that arises in the abdominal aorta and carry the oxygenated blood to the lumbar vertebrae and the back muscles.
Inferior mesenteric artery:
The inferior mesenteric artery originates from the lower aorta. Its possible function is to supply the oxygenated blood to the large intestine.
Median sacral artery:
The median sacral artery or also called middle sacral artery arises to the abdominal aorta. These are basically the very small branches and its function to deliver the blood to the rectum.
Common iliac artery:
The common iliac artery is a part of the abdominal aorta, supplying the blood further to the pelvis and legs.