The Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt (HMP) is also referred as “Pentose phosphate Pathway” (PPP). This is substitute Glucose oxidation pathway. The hexose monophosphate pathway is utilized for secretion of NADPH from NADP. The NADPH is needed for biosynthetic reactions like fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, drug reduction, and as a cofactor for few non-synthetic enzymatic chemical reactions. HMP shunt is the different Glucose oxidative pathway.
Furthermore, it is used for the secretion of ribose for nucleotide and also nucleic acid synthesis. The hexose monophosphate shunt is also provided an entry of some complex chain of carbohydrates into the glycolytic pathway and therefore performs as a connection route in between alternate pathways.
Steroidogenic tissues, red blood cells, and the liver are the prominent sector of hexose monophosphate pathway. Muscle has minute quantities of some of the Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt enzymes, due it has little required for synthetic chemical reactions, and therefore, little needy for NADPH.
The muscle, however, like all systematic tissues, needs to be able to produce Ribose in order to create nucleotides and nucleic acids long term chain.
The pentose phosphate pathway happens in the cytoplasm. It is a prominent site of NADPH and ribose-5-Phosphate for nucleic acid biosynthesis. It has an oxidative phase, and a non-oxidative interconversion.
Phases of Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt:
The pentose phosphate pathway actually exist in the cytosol and can be break up into two phases:
The oxidative portion of HMP shunt composes of 3 chemical reactions that lead to the production of Ribulose-5-Phosphate, Carbon dioxide and 2 additional molecules of NADPH, for each molecule of Glucose-6-Phosphate would get oxidized.
During the whole oxidative phase, from glucose-6-phosphate taken by phosphorylation of the open glucose, NADPH finally acquired is make up some pentose, ribulose 5-phosphate.
The non-oxidative reactions of pentose phosphate pathway accelerate the inter-conversion of 3, 4, 5 and 7-carbon sugars. The non-oxidative source of the pentose phosphate pathway is begun when the cell demands extra NADPH than ribose-5-phosphate. On the other side, the second process has a bit complex sequence of violent reactions that let you an alternate of the C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 pentose sugars respectively, to make at last glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, which go through directly to glycolysis process.
Importance of HMP Shunt:
Producing NADPH + H+ :
- HMP Shunt making a bulk of Biochemical reductant NADPH + H+. This reductant taking part in the reductive anabolic pathway, which is very much complex.
- NADPH has a very much importance in Glutathione Reductase catalysis. This enzyme offsets the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from hydroxyl peroxide molecules and keep in your mind it is an exothermic reaction.
- The NADPH is one of the crucial co-enzyme for the microsomal for the great liver microsomal, Cytochrome-P450 Mono-Oxygenase system separately. This is the significant pathway for the hydroxylation of Aromatic and Aliphatic compounds, i.e. Steroid alcohols and many other drugs.
- In Phagocytosis mechanism NADPH + H+ is playing a great role in Respiratory Burst.
- Ribose-5-Phosphate is basically the precursor molecule for nucleotide synthesis. The total concentration of Ribose-5-Phosphate is improved efficiency by the utilizing of enzyme Glucose-6-Phopshate dehydrogenase in HMP shunt.
- HMP shunt delivers Ribose-5-Phosphate for the Purine biosynthesis by the boost level of Ribose-5-Phosphate is controlled by Glucose-6-Phosphodehydrogenase.
Producing Glycolytic Intermediate:
- In the HMP Shunt Pathway, some molecules of Glycolytic intermediary are taken a form, and these directly take an important part in Glycolysis. The molecules are Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate and Fructose-6-Phosphate respectively.
Differences between Glycolysis and HMP Shunt:
Glycolysis (likewise called Embden-Meyerhoff pathway) and HMP shunt (additionally called pentose phosphate pathway, phosphogluconate pathway or direct pathway), both are glucose breakdown pathways. The distinction is that glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose up to pyruvate or lactate. While HMP shunt is the breakdown of glucose to yield distinctive metabolic intermediates. The end results of HMP process result in 2 molecules of glucose, 6 phosphate and 3 molecules of phosphoglyceraldehyde.
Glycolysis happens in the whole of the human body. While HMP shunts, for the most part, happens in that parts of the body where lipid and steroid blend take formation. For example, lactating mammary organs, RBC, fat tissue, thyroid, liver, adrenal cortex, testes and ovaries and so forth.
Carbon dioxide is not an end product in glycolysis. While CO2 generation is the particular normal for pentose phosphate pathway. It is created in 6 phosphogluconate and is changed over to ribulose 5 phosphate within the sight of ” 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase” protein.
Glycolysis is the separation of glucose up to pyruvate or lactate. While, on the other side HMP shunt, is also the same, but its metabolic products are very much different to one another.
There are lots more differences, but the points that mentioned above are the prominent alternation, between glycolysis and Hexose MonoPhosphate Shunt. However, they are enough for any young medical student.